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Awareness weeks guide

Health Awareness Week

World Heart Day - 29 September 2022

World Heart Day is an opportunity for everyone to stop and consider how best to use heart for humanity, for nature, and for you. Beating cardiovascular disease (CVD) is something that matters to every beating heart. World Heart Federation

Key Statistics: Cardiovascular Disease
Statistics and information on coronary heart disease in Australia Heart Foundation


Evaluation and Diagnosis



Treatment and Management










Review on machine learning techniques for diagnosis of heart disease
Now-a-days, heart disease is becoming a concern to human health. According to World Health organisation (WHO), heart disease is the number one killer among other fatal diseases. Excessive smoking, alcohol consumption and junk food are culprit for the heart disease. Physical inactivity is also a concerning to the human health. Heart disease is pretty hard to predict or diagnose using traditional methods like counselling. But, now-a-days, medical fields are using machine learning to predict or diagnose different diseases. Implementation of machine learning techniques provides faster and mostly accurate results. This can save many life. In this paper, different machine learning approach for heart disease diagnosis are reviewed. International journal for research in applied science & engineering technology 8 August 2022

Urinary sodium concentration predicts time to major adverse coronary events and all-cause mortality in men with heart failure over a 28–33-year period: a prospective cohort study
Urinary sodium concentrations (Una) was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality but not major adverse coronary events (MACE) outcomes over 28–33 years with 173–229 mmol/day appearing to be the optimal level. UNa may represent an emerging long-term prognostic biomarker that warrants further investigation. BMC cardiovascular disorders 2 September 2022

A simple score to identify increased risk of Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
A simple 6 variable clinical score may be used to guide use of pyrophosphate scintigraphy (PYP) and increase recognition of Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) among patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the community. Further validation in larger and more diverse populations is needed. JAMA cardiology 7 September 2022

Ontology based decision tree: model for prediction of cardiovascular disease
Researchers are using a variety of statistical and machine learning methods to assess immense amounts of complex medical data, to help doctors predict heart disease. In this paper, the authors proposed a new approach to predict CVD using ML techniques and Ontology to build an efficient ontology-based model able to predict accurately the presence of cardiac disease and establish an early diagnosis. the approach consists of extracting rules from the Decision Tree algorithm that differentiate the patients with or without cardiovascular disease then implementing these rules in the ontology reasoner using Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The ontology model result reach high classification accuracy of 75% compared to the decision tree model. The approach can be employed in the medical field for the prediction of cardiovascular diseases. Indian journal of computer science and engineering  3 May 2022



National Heart Foundation of Australia: position statement on coronary artery calcium scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Australia
This position statement considers the evolving evidence on the use of coronary artery calcium scoring (CAC) for defining cardiovascular risk in the context of Australian practice and provides advice to health professionals regarding the use of CAC scoring in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Australia. MJA 7 May 2021

Artificial sweeteners and risk of cardiovascular diseases: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort
The findings from this large scale prospective cohort study suggest a potential direct association between higher artificial sweetener consumption (especially aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose) and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Artificial sweeteners are present in thousands of food and beverage brands worldwide, however they remain a controversial topic and are currently being re-evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority, the World Health Organization, and other health agencies. BMJ 7 September 2022

Genetic risk stratification and the primary prevention of coronary artery disease
Recently  over 200 genetic risk variants predisposing to CAD have been discovered. Based on these variants, one can express the genetic risk for CAD in a  single  number  referred  to  as  the  Polygenic  Risk  Score  (PRS).  The PRS has been evaluated in over one million individuals and shown that those with high genetic risk have the highest incidence of heart disease and can be reduced by 40-50%, utilizing drugs (statins and PCSK9 inhibitors)   or   lifestyle   changes   (favorable   diet   and   increased exercise). The genetic risk for CAD is determined at conception and thus can be predicted anytime from birth onward. The PRS detection of young asymptomatic individuals based on the PRS enables one to implement  early  primary  prevention.  Adoption  of  the  PRS  to  risk stratify for CAD could represent a paradigm shift in the prevention of this pandemic disease. Medical research archives 26 August 2022

Air pollution and cardiovascular diseases: A position paper
Air pollution is one of the main environmental risk factors for health and is linked to cardiovascular diseases, which are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. In this position paper, the authors discuss the main air pollutants and how they can promote the development of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular events. They also summarise the main evidence supporting the association between air pollution and cardiovascular events, such as coronary events (acute coronary syndromes/myocardial infarction; chronic coronary syndromes), stroke, heart failure and mortality. Some recommendations are made based on these data and the European Society of Cardiology guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention. Portuguese journal of cardiology 12 July 2022



Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19
The authors used national healthcare databases from the US Department of Veterans Affairs to build a cohort of 153,760 individuals with COVID-19, as well as two sets of control cohorts with 5,637,647 (contemporary controls) and 5,859,411 (historical controls) individuals, to estimate risks and 1-year burdens of a set of pre-specified incident cardiovascular outcomes. They show that, beyond the first 30 d after infection, individuals with COVID-19 are at increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease spanning several categories, including cerebrovascular disorders, dysrhythmias, ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, heart failure and thromboembolic disease. These risks and burdens were evident even among individuals who were not hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection and increased in a graded fashion according to the care setting during the acute phase (non-hospitalized, hospitalized and admitted to intensive care). These results provide evidence that the risk and 1-year burden of cardiovascular disease in survivors of acute COVID-19 are substantial. Care pathways of those surviving the acute episode of COVID-19 should include attention to cardiovascular health and disease. Nature medicine 7 February 2022

Using community-led development to build health communication about rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal children: a developmental evaluation
Action to address high rates of RHD must include effective health communication strategies that value Indigenous Knowledge, language and culture, collaborative leadership and respect for Indigenous data sovereignty. ANZ journal of public health 10 May 2021

Long-term outcomes following rheumatic heart disease diagnosis in Australia
This study provides the most definitive and contemporary estimates of progression to major cardiovascular complication or death in young Australians with RHD. Despite access to the publically funded universal Australian healthcare system, one-fifth of initially uncomplicated RHD cases will experience one of the major complications of RHD within 8 years supporting the need for programmes to eradicate RHD.

Sex differences in Atrial Fibrillation risk: The VITAL rhythm study
In this cohort study, findings suggest that after controlling for height and/or body size, women without CVD at baseline were at higher risk for AF than men, suggesting that sex differences in body size account for much of the protective association between female sex and AF. These data underscore the importance of AF prevention in women. JAMA cardiology 31 August 2022

Cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease events in women vs men with Type 1 Diabetes
These findings suggest that despite a more favorable cardiometabolic risk factor profile, women with type 1 diabetes did not have a significantly lower CVD event burden than men, suggesting a greater clinical impact of cardiometabolic risk factors in women vs men with diabetes. These findings call for conscientious optimization of the control of CVD risk factors in women with type 1 diabetes. JAMA cardiology 8 September 2022

Factors that influence whether patients with acute coronary syndromes undergo cardiac catheterisation 
Although a larger proportion of patients who presented to catheterisation‚Äźcapable hospitals underwent catheterisation, patients with similar characteristics were selected for the procedure, independent of the hospital of presentation. Major outcomes for patients were also similar, suggesting equitable management of patients with ACS across Australia. MJA 5 April 2022

Risk of persistent and new clinical sequelae among adults aged 65 years and older during the post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection: retrospective cohort study
The results confirm an excess risk for persistent and new sequelae in adults aged ≥65 years after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Other than respiratory failure, dementia, and post-viral fatigue, the sequelae resembled those of viral lower respiratory tract illness in older adults. These findings further highlight the wide range of important sequelae after acute infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. BMJ 9 February 2022

Associations of cereal grains intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries in Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study: prospective cohort study
High intake of refined grains was associated with higher risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Globally, lower consumption of refined grains should be considered. BMJ 3 February 2022

Association of nut consumption with CVD risk factors in young to middle-aged adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

  • Walnut and nut consumers had higher HEI2015 diet quality scores than those who do not consume nuts.
  • Walnut consumers had a better CVD risk profile than other nut and no nut consumers.
  • This study findings support the health claim to include walnuts as part of a healthy diet.

Nutrition, metabolism & cardiovascular diseases 30 July 2022



Cardiac rehabilitation: Effective yet underutilized in patients with cardiovascular disease
Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive program that treats patients with multiple cardiac conditions including post-myocardial infarction, stable angina, post-coronary artery bypass surgery, chronic heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease with structured exercise, and nutrition and risk factor counseling. It is an effective tool that has been shown to improve not only quality of life but also reduce adverse cardiac events, including death. While the value of cardiac rehabilitation is supported by a large body of evidence and its recommendation by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology it is significantly underutilized due to both patient and systemic factors. Continued efforts should be made to remove the obstacles to make cardiac rehabilitation available to all those who qualify. Clinical cardiology 2 September 2022

Repurposing Colchicine for heart disease
Colchicine is one of the most ancient medications still prescribed. It is extracted from the Colchicum autumnale plant and is routinely used because of its broad anti-inflammatory properties to treat gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Colchicine has shown efficacy in various clinical settings in which inflammation is a key component, and it has become first-line therapy for acute and recurrent pericarditis. Two landmark clinical trials have recently shown that colchicine significantly improves cardiovascular outcomes on background statin and antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery disease, supporting its role for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. Favorable results have also emerged in atrial fibrillation. We herein briefly review the most recent data related to the multiple cardiovascular conditions for which colchicine has been successfully repurposed. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 30 September 2021

Effect of metformin on left ventricular mass and functional parameters in non-diabetic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Results suggest a favorable effect for metformin on LVMI and LVEF in patients with or without pre-existing CVD. Additional trials are needed to address the long-term effect of metformin. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 10 September 2022

In hospital cardiac arrest — the crucial first 5 min: a simulation study
Using unannounced in situ simulated cardiac arrests, the authors found that key elements such as chest compressions, calling the cardiac arrest team, and defibrillation were delayed. Perceived barriers to resuscitation performance were leadership and teaming, whereas experience, clear leadership, and recent training were perceived as important facilitators for treatment progress. Advances in simulation 9 September 2022

Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in patients in rural Australia : The MORACS randomized clinical trial
The findings indicate that MORACS diagnostic support service reduced the proportion of missed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and improved the rates of primary reperfusion therapy. Accurate diagnosis of STEMI was associated with lower mortality. JAMA cardiology 25 May 2022

Virtual and in-person cardiac rehabilitation
What you need to know

  • Most eligible patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure do not participate in cardiac rehabilitation. Covid-19 has exacerbated this, with a substantial drop in the number of patients participating Home and telehealth based interventions are increasingly being used as alternatives to traditional centre based rehabilitation programmes
  • Outcomes for patients participating in home based rehabilitation compare favourably with centre based programmes in terms of hospitalisations, quality of life, and cost
  • Telehealth based interventions are promising, but some patients may find these interventions challenging
  • Novel ways of delivering rehabilitation have been employed during the covid-19 pandemic, including hybrid models that are likely to be offered as alternatives to centre based rehabilitation in future, enabling greater patient choice and greater uptake of cardiac rehabilitation

BMJ 3 June 2021

Dapagliflozin in heart failure with mildly reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction
Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. NEJM 22 September 2022

Complete revascularization vs culprit lesion–only percutaneous coronary intervention for angina-related quality of life in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from the COMPLETE randomized clinical trial
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), complete revascularization resulted in a slightly greater proportion of patients being angina-free compared with a culprit lesion–only strategy. This modest incremental improvement in health status is in addition to the established benefit of complete revascularization in reducing cardiovascular events. JAMA 21 September 2022



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